async/await within Rust is a convenient way to gain parallelism, even on an embedded device where we ostensibly have exactly one userland thread by default.

Threads and async/await

First, threads...

While living the larger laptop/server CPU lifestyle, we've grown acustomed to having threads. Lots of threads. Each thread generally provides the illusion of a straight-line execution of code that owns the entire processor. As some books describe it, from the thread's point-of-view, the whole processor is theirs, just sometimes (while other threads are running), it's just a very slow processor.

To accomplish this magic of appearing to own the entire processor, threads also have to actually give each thread its own space for its stack to grow. Additionally, the kernel has to occasionally freeze one thread, swap out that thread's stack for another waiting thread's, and then unfreeze the other thread to run for a bit. This is context switching.

The same thing happens when running multiple processes instead of just threads, but then the heap and the memory-manager gets involved, so that each process has its own supposedly unlimited memory address space.

This is all great (aside from race conditions), but also quite heavy for achieving parallelism on a small $2 MCU that is already running its tail off to blink some LEDs in a timely manner.

Now, async...

With Rust (and several other languages), there's the idea of async and await, which ultimately represent a way to deal with cooperative multi-tasking, instead of preemptive as defined by modern threads and processes.

To live the async lifestyle with Rust, you first must mark your function or method as async. Unfortunately, you can now no longer call this method from code that isn't also async. And simply marking your function as async really accomplishes very little.

But once you're in an async context (getting into one, we'll address shortly), you can call other async functions, and here's where the magic happens. Calling an async function will not return the result you're asking for. Great? Great! Instead, it signals you'd like that function to go off, and do whatever it needs to do, and you'll check back later when you need to know the answer.

async fn foo() {
  let not_the_result = bar();
  // bar is possibly chugging away doing work, maybe, kinda

  ... lots of other stuff ...

  // NOW we care if bar() has completed, and will do nothing
  // else until it does.
  let actually_the_result = not_the_result.await;

Ultimately, an async function returns a future that will, from your caller's point-of-view, block when you .await until it's satisfied.

The awesomeness: it's not really blocking, in terms of blocking the single MCU processor from doing other stuff. Which is where the real power lies.

Is it async turtles all the way down?

As noted above, you can only call an async function from within an already async context. How do you get into an async context to start?


An executor is a bit of code that can take an async block as an argument, and spawn it into an async context where the magic can then happen. The Rust ecosystem has a few executors, and the embedded Rust ecosystem has a few also. The executor API is pretty much left to the implementation, so read the docs of whichever you choose.

Why is this good for embedded?

We generally have a single core, underpowered little processor without a memory-management unit. We also prefer to statically allocate as much as we can, without over-allocating memory "just in case" because sometimes we're only rocking 48kb to play with. While you can certainly implement preemptive threading on an MCU, you would then have to estimate and reserve stack space per thread, possibly over/under-allocating.

With some strategies, you can precisely allocate memory with async tasks and deterministically know you won't inadvertantly OOM. If you spawn new tasks willy-nilly, then of course you can still exhaust your executor's memory pool, but that can be controllable and isolated to just the executor, not corrupting your entire memory space.

Let's see an example

I have some proof-of-concept code deep within a secure arctic bunker that I hope to clean up and publish shortly, but here's an example of... what else... blinky, using async and await.

fn main() -> ! {

    let mut device = Peripherals::take().unwrap();

    let mut flash = device.FLASH.constrain();
    let mut rcc = device.RCC.constrain();
    let mut pwr = device.PWR.constrain(&mut rcc.apb1r1);
    let clocks = rcc
        .freeze(&mut flash.acr, &mut pwr);

    init_executor!( 1024 );

    // NOTE: This is *not* the HAL Timer
    let mut tim15 = crate::timer::Timer::tim15(device.TIM15, clocks, &mut rcc.apb2);

    // NOTE: Since this is *not* the HAL timer, I have to color
    //       outside the lines to enable/reset the apb2
    unsafe {
        (&(*RCC::ptr()).apb2enr).modify(|_,w| w.tim15en().set_bit());
        (&(*RCC::ptr()).apb2rstr).modify(|_,w| w.tim15rst().set_bit());
        (&(*RCC::ptr()).apb2rstr).modify(|_,w| w.tim15rst().clear_bit());


    let mut gpioa = device.GPIOA.split(&mut rcc.ahb2);
    let mut ld1 = gpioa
        .into_push_pull_output(&mut gpioa.moder, &mut gpioa.otyper);

    spawn("ld1", async move {
        loop {

    let mut gpiob = device.GPIOB.split(&mut rcc.ahb2);
    let mut ld2 = gpiob
        .into_push_pull_output(&mut gpiob.moder, &mut gpiob.otyper);

    spawn("ld2", async move {
        loop {


What's it do?

It blinks two LEDs. One is on/off every second, the other is on/off every half second.

The two calls to spawn are using my executor to start two async contexts. They don't do a dang thing until executor::run_forever() is called, which starts both.

If we view them as two independent tasks, they first turn on their LED. Then they call an async function named delay(...) with the amount of time they want to wait. That call itself will return a future immediately, which is a pretty poor delay. But once we .await on that future, from each task's point-of-view, it's a blocking call for 1000 (or 500) milliseconds.

Once the .await is satisfied, the task can carry on, toggling it's LED and doing the delay(...) dance again.

Since the .await does not actually block the entire processor though, it allows the other task to keep churning, itself doing real work or possibly .awaiting.

How's it different from a non-async delay?

First, this delay supports many individual delays using a single hardware timer. Additionally, the normal Embedded HAL CountDown timers may use the nb non-blocking crate, but they ultimately block when you wish to delay.

When you have bit of code spinning in a loop checking to see if its delay has expired, you're preventing other code from doing real work. You're also actively using the processor, which may prevent some low-power modes. If you have a low-power timer available to you, there's a high chance that your MCU could go to sleep for 499 milliseconds, wake up to flip an LED, and then go back to sleep.


Of course, you can write code that blinks two LEDs using interrupts and shared resources, but at least to my eye, having self-contained tasks with ostensibly straight-line logic is easier to think about.

In this implementation, I've glossed over a few facts. First, there is an interrupt-handler (for TIM15) wired up in order for the shared AsyncTimer to know when some deadline has expired. Additionally, the executor I'm using currently supports exactly 8 tasks, and I've initialized it with 1kb of memory for storing the async continuation structures that Rust creates behind the scenes.

Also, if you want to create something that is asynchronous, you take on the synchronization burden and end up writing implementations of Future which, while being straight-forward, is also non-trivial. Using existing async functionality is much easier.

Another minor point is that async functions you've called generally won't actually attempt to make progress (in most cases) until you call .await. In the case of our AsyncDelay though, that's not completely true. Calling delay(...) registers a deadline, so it is "working" towards it.

But in general, I find async embedded code to show much promise, and could ultimately form the basis for a reactive or actor-like framework for your small boards.